Andrew Fugard PhD

Andrew Fugard


Publications:
2013
  Statistical models as cognitive models of individual differences in reasoning
Fugard, AJB & Stenning, K 2013, 'Statistical models as cognitive models of individual differences in reasoning' Argument & Computation, vol 4, no. 1, pp. 89-102. DOI: 10.1080/19462166.2012.674061
General Information
Organisations: School of Informatics.
Authors: Fugard, Andrew J.B. & Stenning, Keith.
Pages: 89-102
Publication Date: 1 Mar 2013
Publication Information
Category: Article
Journal: Argument & Computation
Volume: 4
Issue number: 1
ISSN: 1946-2166
Original Language: English
DOIs: 10.1080/19462166.2012.674061
2011
  Visual/verbal-analytic reasoning bias as a function of self-reported autistic-like traits: a study of typically developing individuals solving Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices
Fugard, AJB, Stewart, ME & Stenning, K 2011, 'Visual/verbal-analytic reasoning bias as a function of self-reported autistic-like traits: a study of typically developing individuals solving Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices' Autism, vol 15, no. 3, pp. 327-340. DOI: 10.1177/1362361310371798
People with autism spectrum condition (ASC) perform well on Raven's matrices, a test which loads highly on the general factor in intelligence. However, the mechanisms supporting enhanced performance on the test are poorly understood. Evidence is accumulating that milder variants of the ASC phenotype are present in typically developing individuals, and that those who are further along the autistic-like trait spectrum show similar patterns of abilities and impairments as people with clinically diagnosed ASC. We investigated whether self-reported autistic-like traits in a university student sample, assessed using the Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ; Baron-Cohen, Wheelwright, Skinner, et al., 2001), predict performance on Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices. We found that reporting poorer social skills but better attention switching predicted a higher Advanced matrices score overall. DeShon, Chan, and Weissbein (1995) classified Advanced matrices items as requiring a visuospatial, or a verbal-analytic strategy. We hypothesised that higher AQ scores would predict better performance on visuospatial items than on verbal-analytic items. This prediction was confirmed. These results are consistent with the continuum view and can be explained by the enhanced perceptual functioning theory of performance peaks in ASC. The results also confirm a new prediction about Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices performance in people with ASC.
General Information
Organisations: School of Informatics.
Authors: Fugard, Andrew J. B., Stewart, M. E & Stenning, Keith.
Pages: 327-340
Publication Date: 1 May 2011
Publication Information
Category: Article
Journal: Autism
Volume: 15
Issue number: 3
ISSN: 1362-3613
Original Language: English
DOIs: 10.1177/1362361310371798
  Throwing the normative baby out with the prescriptivist bathwater
Achourioti, T, Fugard, AJB & Stenning, K 2011, 'Throwing the normative baby out with the prescriptivist bathwater' Behavioral and Brain Sciences, vol 34, no. 05, pp. 249. DOI: 10.1017/S0140525X1100046X
It is neither desirable nor possible to eliminate normative concerns from psychology of reasoning. Norms define the most fundamental psychological questions: what are people trying to do, and how? Even if no one system of reasoning can be the norm, pure descriptivism is as undesirable and unobtainable in the psychology of reasoning as elsewhere in science.
General Information
Organisations: School of Informatics.
Authors: Achourioti, Theodora, Fugard, Andrew J. B. & Stenning, Keith.
Pages: 249
Publication Date: 1 Oct 2011
Publication Information
Category: Article
Journal: Behavioral and Brain Sciences
Volume: 34
Issue number: 05
ISSN: 0140-525X
Original Language: English
DOIs: 10.1017/S0140525X1100046X
2008
  Autistic traits moderate closed world interpretation in conditional reasoning
Stenning, K, Fugard, AJB & Stewart, M 2008, 'Autistic traits moderate closed world interpretation in conditional reasoning'.
General Information
Organisations: Neuroinformatics DTC.
Authors: Stenning, Keith, Fugard, Andrew J. B. & Stewart, Mary.
Publication Date: 2008
Publication Information
Category: Poster
Original Language: English
  Scanning fixations during the processing of facial expression versus identity: an exploration of task-driven and stimulus-driven effects
Malcolm, GL, Lanyon, LJ, Fugard, AJB & Barton, JJS 2008, 'Scanning fixations during the processing of facial expression versus identity: an exploration of task-driven and stimulus-driven effects' Journal of Vision, vol 8. DOI: doi: 10.1167/8.8.2
Perceptual studies suggest that processing facial identity emphasizes upper-face information, whereas processing expressions of anger or happiness emphasizes the lower-face. The two goals of the present study were to determine (a) if the distributions of eye fixations reflect these upper/lower-face biases, and (b) whether this bias is task- or stimulus-driven. We presented a target face followed by a probe pair of morphed faces, neither of which was identical to the target. Subjects judged which of the pair was more similar to the target face while eye movements were recorded. In Experiment 1 the probe pair always differed from each other in both identity and expression on each trial. In one block subjects judged which probe face was more similar to the target face in identity, and in a second block subjects judged which probe face was more similar to the target face in expression. In Experiment 2 the two probe faces differed in either expression or identity, but not both. Subjects were not informed which dimension differed, but simply asked to judge which probe face was more similar to the target face. We found that subjects scanned the upper-face more than the lower-face during the identity task but the lower-face more than the upper-face during the expression task in Experiment 1 (task-driven effects), with significantly less variation in bias in Experiment 2 (stimulus-driven effects). We conclude that fixations correlate with regional variations of diagnostic information in different processing tasks, but that these reflect top-down task-driven guidance of information acquisition more than stimulus-driven effects.
General Information
Organisations: Neuroinformatics DTC.
Authors: Malcolm, George L., Lanyon, Linda J., Fugard, Andrew J. B. & Barton, Jason J. S..
Keywords: (face expression, face identity, scanpath, fixation. )
Publication Date: 2008
Publication Information
Category: Article
Journal: Journal of Vision
Volume: 8
ISSN: 1534-7362
Original Language: English
DOIs: doi: 10.1167/8.8.2
  Exploring quantifier reasoning and autistic-like traits
Fugard, AJB, Stenning, K & Stewart, M 2008, 'Exploring quantifier reasoning and autistic-like traits'.
General Information
Organisations: School of Informatics.
Authors: Fugard, Andrew J. B., Stenning, Keith & Stewart, Mary.
Publication Date: 2008
Publication Information
Category: Poster
Original Language: English
2007
  How do autistic traits relate to reasoning processes?
Fugard, AJB, Stenning, K, Logie, RH & Stewart, M 2007, 'How do autistic traits relate to reasoning processes?'.
General Information
Organisations: School of Philosophy, Psychology and Language Sciences.
Authors: Fugard, Andrew J. B., Stenning, Keith, Logie, Robert H. & Stewart, Mary.
Publication Date: 2007
Publication Information
Category: Poster
Original Language: English
  Embracing individual differences to model reasoning style and the relationship with sociolinguistic traits
Logie, R, Stewart, M, Fugard, A & Stenning, K 2007, 'Embracing individual differences to model reasoning style and the relationship with sociolinguistic traits' EPS Experimental Psychology Society, Edinburgh, United Kingdom, 4/07/07 - 7/07/07, .
There are many individual differences in the inferences people draw when reasoning. These are known to be due to, for instance, reasonable differences in how quantifiers are interpreted, sensitivity to syntactic features of the material to be reasoned about, and the extent to which prior knowledge about the domain of reasoning is integrated. We sought the relationship between these qualitative features of response by asking participants to reason about a series of tasks including all sixty-four categorical syllogisms, a one premise immediate inference task, and a conditional reasoning task. Since reasoning processes are arguably most frequently utilised in the social context, e.g. in conversation and argument, we also examined the relationship with autistic traits - many of which are related to sociolinguistic preferences and ability. We illustrate the relationships using general linear mixedeffects statistical models and interpret the findings with respect to theories of credulous and sceptical modes of inference.
General Information
Organisations: School of Informatics.
Authors: Logie, Robert, Stewart, Mary, Fugard, Andrew & Stenning, Keith.
Publication Date: 4 Jul 2007
Publication Information
Category: Poster
Original Language: English
2005
  What is a proof?
Bundy, A, Jamnik, M & Fugard, A 2005, 'What is a proof?' Philosophical Transactions A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, vol 363, no. 1835, pp. 2377-2391. DOI: 10.1098/rsta.2005.1651
To those brought up in a logic-based tradition there seems to be a simple and clear definition of proof. But this is largely a 20th century invention; many earlier proofs had a different nature. We will look particularly at the faulty proof of Euler's Theorem and Lakatos' rational reconstruction of the history of this proof. We will ask: how is it possible for the errors in a faulty proof to remain undetected for several years - even when counter-examples to it are known? How is it possible to have a proof about concepts that are only partially de ned? And can we give a logic-based account of such phenomena? We introduce the concept of schematic proofs and argue that they over a possible cognitive model for the human construction of proofs in mathematics. In particular
General Information
Organisations: Centre for Intelligent Systems and their Applications .
Authors: Bundy, Alan, Jamnik, Mateja & Fugard, Andrew.
Keywords: (mathematical proof, automated theorem proving , schematic proof, constructive omega rule. )
Pages: 2377-2391
Publication Date: Oct 2005
Publication Information
Category: Article
Journal: Philosophical Transactions A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences
Volume: 363
Issue number: 1835
ISSN: 1364-503X
Original Language: English
DOIs: 10.1098/rsta.2005.1651

Projects:
Exploring individual differences in deductive reasoning as a function of autistic-like traits (PhD)

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